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  • I.e., the Nile. So also throughout the book.

  • Some ancient versions add, to the Hebrews.

  • The book of Genesis concludes with a dead man in a coffin in Egypt (Gen. 50:26). This indicates that God’s chosen people were in a situation of death in Egypt. Although they were in death, they were very living and active (cf. v. 7). While they were making a living in Egypt and were enjoying the pleasures of Egypt, they were usurped and enslaved by Pharaoh to serve him with harshness (vv. 10-14; 2:23; 5:6-18). Thus they were detained from fulfilling the purpose for which God had created and chosen them. The situation of the children of Israel in Egypt under Pharaoh’s tyranny is a full picture of the life of fallen mankind in the world under the usurping and enslaving hand of Satan and his evil power of darkness. See Eph. 2:1-3 and notes.

  • Lit., souls.

  • Egypt typifies the world full of fleshly enjoyment, which brings God’s people into slavery and bondage under Satan, the ruler of the world (John 12:31; Eph. 2:2), typified by Pharaoh, the king of Egypt.

  • Historically, Exodus continues Genesis; however, Exodus portrays the corporate aspect of the spiritual experience of God’s people, whereas Genesis portrays primarily the individual aspect. These two aspects represent the complete spiritual experience of God’s people.

  • At the beginning of the Old Testament, Satan visited a female, Eve, and used her to deaden the male life (Gen. 3:1-6), but at the beginning of the New Testament, God visited the virgin Mary and used her to bring in His salvation (Luke 1:26-38; 2:30). In the same principle, Pharaoh attempted to use the midwives to kill the male life, but God used them to keep alive the life that is for His purpose.

  • According to the Bible the male life represents the life that is for God’s purpose (cf. Gen. 1:26; 1 Cor. 11:7a; Eph. 2:15; Rev. 12:5) and the female life, especially among the fallen people, represents the life that is for man’s pleasure (cf. Gen. 2:18; 1 Cor. 11:9). Pharaoh’s intention to kill the sons and spare the daughters typifies Satan’s strategy to destroy the life that is for God’s purpose and preserve the life that is for man’s pleasure.

  • Lit., stones.

  • See note Exo. :11*1.

  • In Hebrew the two names mean, respectively, mouth of integrity and thunder of the standard. These names indicate that the cities were built for pride and boastful display.

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