The content of 1 and 2 Samuel is the history of Samuel, Saul, and David, which continues the history of the judges and which is a crucial part of the central line of Israel’s history. Samuel was a Levite by birth and a Nazarite by consecration, who became a priest, a prophet, and a judge. He initiated the prophethood to replace the waning priesthood in the speaking for God, terminated the judgeship, and brought in the kingship. Saul was a king among Israel in a negative way, and David was a king in a positive way.
The central thought of 1 and 2 Samuel is that the fulfillment of God’s economy needs man’s cooperation in the principle of incarnation, as illustrated by the history of Samuel’s mother, Hannah, of Samuel, and of David, in the positive sense, and by the history of Eli and of Saul, in the negative sense. Such a cooperation is related to the personal enjoyment of the good land, which typifies the all-inclusive and all-extensive Christ (see note Deut. 8:71). First and 2 Samuel, as a continuation of Joshua, Judges, and Ruth, give the details concerning the enjoyment of the God-given good land. The types in these two books show us how the New Testament believers can and should enjoy Christ as their God-allotted portion (Col. 1:12) for the establishing of God’s kingdom, which is the church (Matt. 16:18-19; Rom. 14:17). These types indicate that our being right with God is a condition for our enjoyment of Christ. In 1 and 2 Samuel the good land enjoyed by those who cooperated with God became the kingdom of God, in which the cooperators reigned as kings. Likewise, in our cooperation with God we need to enjoy Christ to such an extent that our enjoyment of Christ becomes the kingdom of God, in which we reign in life with Christ (Rom. 5:17).