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  • The day of resurrection (1 Cor. 15:4).

  • Marriage signifies the continuation of human life, and a wedding (feast) signifies the pleasure and enjoyment of human life.

  • Cana means reed, and reeds signify weak and fragile people (Isa. 42:3a; Matt. 12:20a; Matt. 11:7).

  • Galilee was a despised place (John 7:52).

  • Wine, the life juice of the grape, signifies life. Hence, the wine's running out symbolizes that the human life runs out.

  • Lit., fell short.

  • Here the mother of Jesus symbolizes the natural man, which has nothing to do with life (v. 4) and must be subdued by life (v. 5).

  • A term of respect and endearment.

  • Lit., what is there to Me and to you? (a Hebrew idiom).

  • The six waterpots signify the created man, for man was created on the sixth day (Gen. 1:27, 31).

  • The Jews' rite of purification with water signifies religion's attempt to make people clean by certain dead practices. But the Lord changes death into life.

  • Two or three measures equal twenty or thirty gallons.

  • Water here signifies death, as in Gen. 1:2, 6, Exo. 14:21, and Matt. 3:16.

  • The changing of water into wine signifies the changing of death into life.

  • The first mentioning of any matter in the Scriptures sets forth the principle of that matter. Therefore, this first sign sets forth the principle of all the following signs, that is, to change death into life.

    In the Scriptures, figuratively, the tree of life is the source of life and the tree of knowledge is the source of death, as revealed in Gen. 2:9, 17. The meaning of all the cases recorded in this Gospel corresponds with the principle that the tree of life results in life and the tree of knowledge results in death.

  • In this book all the miracles done by the Lord are called signs (v. 23; 3:2; 4:54; 6:2, 14, 26, 30; 7:31; 9:16; 10:41; 11:47; 12:18, 37; 20:30). They are miracles, but they are used as signs to signify the matter of life.

  • The Lord's divinity was manifested here.

  • The Greek word refers to the entire precincts of the temple. So in the next verse.

  • This case of the cleansing of the temple reveals the purpose of life, i.e., that life is for the building of the house of God.

  • Lit., cords made of rushes.

  • The Greek word refers to the inner temple. So in vv. 20, 21.

  • In three days signifies in resurrection.

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